Monday, February 24, 2020

Social learning theory in child psychology Essay

Social learning theory in child psychology - Essay Example All these theoretical formulations have facilitated child psychologists and therapists to understand child behavior in terms of the interaction among such factors as one’s environment, behavior and psychological processes where positive and negative reinforcements play a pivotal role in modulating the child’s behavior patterns. Bandura goes on to purport that â€Å"children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people† and his social learning theory is rooted on three basic models of observational learning- live, verbal and symbolic model (Cherry). The modeling process involves four stages-attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. This understanding has been proved to be crucial in child psychology as children internalizes many of their behavior patterns and subsequent behavioral problems through observation and modeling from their immediate life environment. However, Bandura also held that external or environmental reinforcement alone does not modulate behavior; he stressed on â€Å"intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment† through which the behavior of the person is shaped (Cherry). Thus, it is significant that the child develops a sense of intrinsic reinforcement in his behavior along with th e large amount of extrinsic reinforcements that he receives from others. It is also worthwhile to analyze how Beg and Beg regard social learning theory in connection with child psychology. For them, social learning theory, in fact, â€Å"combines reinforcement learning theory with psychoanalytic concepts and some of the insights of cultural anthropology and sociology† and as such they hold that the reinforcement aspect of social learning theory has got great relevance in modulating the child’s behavior through appropriate systems of rewards and punishments (Beg &Beg 35). One should also bear in mind that later the concept of rewards and punishments gave way

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Picassos Guernica and Beckmanns Departure Art in the 19th Century Term Paper

Picassos Guernica and Beckmanns Departure Art in the 19th Century Politics - Term Paper Example Art in the 19th century had observed a series of changes and movements significant in catering new types of visual representation before a modern audience. At the turn of the mentioned century, the world had experienced two significant World Wars which inevitably led to noticeable influences in visual arts – in paintings to be exact. From two of the most famous movements during the 19th century, namely Cubism and Expressionism, artists such as Pablo Picasso and Max Beckmann had showcased the core essence of visual arts in the Modern Age. With such context laid down, this paper will focus on the Spanish Cubist painter Pablo Picasso and his famous work, Guernica and the German Expressionist painter Max Beckmann and his work, Departure.This essay will then argue that Picasso’s Guernica and Beckmann’s Departure showcase innovative feats in their respective styles and form and present significant struggle against Fascism prevalent during that period.The entirety of th is paper will tackle the analysis of historical content of both artworks. It will discuss how each piece symbolizes their respective campaigns against the Fascist regimes in Europe at that specific period. The 19th century was a moment in history when different ideologies emerged and Europe.These ideologies were used for propaganda and for an imposition of power amongst the weaker nation-states.In the time of Pablo Picasso,his homeland Spain was subjugated under civil disputes between the Revolutionary forces of the newly established government and the Fascist group led by General Franco .1 This civil struggle in Spain was an important factor which contributed to the theme that was used by Picasso in Guernica. With the civil revolution at its height in Spain, intellectuals, government officials and some of his co-artists and colleagues marched to before his house in Paris in order to seek his sympathy by a means of creating a mural.2 As what can be depicted from this piece of inform ation, Picasso at the period of the Guernica was already an influential artistic figure. The Spanish people believed that his artistic capabilities can, indeed, influence the Spanish people to advocate peace between the warring groups. However, Picasso’s sentiments were with the newly established Republic; his vision was to avoid any means of political art whatsoever.3 This seemed an unprecedented reaction from the artist. However, his views towards the political theme of the mural requested from him would come into fruition after a very devastating event that had swept his former convictions away. On April 27,1937, Guernica, a small Basque village in northern Spain, was unjustifiably bombed by the heavy war machines of Adolf Hitler. The Third Reich’s reason was defiantly for mere bombing practices only. This type of violent exercise caused Guernica to burn for three straight days and a huge loss of 600 civilians.4 The atrocities caused by the Fascist Germany had immed iately reached Paris and Picasso’s residence. The massacre created huge demonstrations upon the streets of Paris.5 This particular event moved the artist and compelled him to do the mural. His inspiration was plain and simple- Guernica. The historical sketch about testify to what Picasso’s Guernica is. The painting is highly political because it sends a definite message to its audience. The content of Guernica presents many symbolisms that cater to the historical background of what was happening in Spain at that time. In the painting, the key figures which relate the war-related disaster happening in Spain were the woman with outstretched arms, the agonized horse and the bull.6 These mentioned figures are classic and universal representations and themes in art which simply symbolize Spain.7 The resentment and the suffering attributed to these images as what is etched upon Picasso’s mural clearly present a horrifying stage in Spanish affairs.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Wine Making Essay Example for Free

Wine Making Essay Winemaking is the production of wine, starting with the selection of grapes and other produce, and ending with putting the delicious wine into bottles! Although wine is usually made from grapes, it may also be made from other fruits! Winemaking can actually be divided into 18 different categories†¦.. Harvesting, destemming, crushing, primary (alcoholic) fermentation, pressing, pigeage, cold stabilization, heat stabilization, second fermentation, bulk aging, Malolactic fermentation, laboratory tests, blending, fining, preservatives, filtration, and last but not least, bottling! Lets now find out how to make wine! Harvesting Harvesting is the picking of the grapes and the first step in wine production. The grapes are either harvested by hand or mechanically, the decision lies on the winemaker. Before harvesting, the winemaker checks the grapes for ripeness, flavor, seed color and taste, and lastly, the sugar level! Mechanical harvesters are large tractors that straddle grapevines, and with a rubber rod, strike the vine to get the grapes. Mechanical harvesters have the advantage of picking grapes in a short amount of time. The disadvantage is all the leaves and stems come with the grapes. Some smart winemakers take off the leaves with another machine before harvesting. Destemming Destemming is the process of removing the stems from the grapes. This process may take place before, or after crushing, depending on the winemaker. If you harvest by hand, you can just skip this step altogether! Crushing Crushing is when gently crushing the grapes and breaking the skin to start getting flavor. In traditional and small wineries the grapes are sometimes crushed by stomping on them. However, in large, more upscale wineries, the grapes are crushed by a large, mechanical, wine crusher. Primary (alcoholic) fermentation Have you ever wondered what the powdery coating around grapes is? So have I! Yeast is what the powder is, which is useful for alcoholic fermentation. Since this can give unpredictable results, cultural yeast is added to the mix. During fermentation, the yeast cells feed on the sugars and multiply, creating carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. The tempeture affects both the taste of the product and the speed that fermentation is over. For red wines, the temperate is typically 72-77 F, and for white wine, the normal tempeture is 59-64 F. For every gram of sugar that is converted, about half a gram of alcohol is produce, so to get a 12% alcohol concentration, the product has to contain 24% of sugar. Pressing Pressing is the act of applying pressure to grapes in order to separate wine from grapes and grape skins. Presses act by positioning the grapes or grape skins between a rigged surface and a movable surface and slowly decreasing the volume between the two surfaces. As the pressure increases, the amount of tannin extracted from the skins into the juice also increases. Pieaege Pieaege is a French winemaking term for the traditional stomping of the grapes in open fermentation tanks. To make different type of wine, grapes are put through a crusher and then poured into open fermentation tanks. Once fermentation begins, the grape skins are pushed to the surface by carbon dioxide gases, released in the fermentation process. The layer of skins at the top is called the cap. The cap needs to mix with the liquid each day for flavor Cold and Heat Stabilization Cold stabilization is a process used in winemaking to reduce tartrate crystals that’s in wine. These crystals look like grains of clear sand, and are formed by acid and potassium. The temeture of the wine is dropped close to freeing for 1-2 weeks. This will cause the crystals to separate from the wine. During heat stabilization, unstable proteins are removed by absorption, preventing them from being in the finished bottle of wine. Second Fermentation. This process takes three to six months, and is very valuable! The wine is kept under airlock, and proteins from the grapes are broken down, and the yeast cells that are still remaining and other particles are able to settle. In this process, the wine goes from being cloudy, to clear! Secondary fermentation usually takes place in large stainless steel vessels or large oak barrels. The oak gives wine a very good finished taste, but if the winemakers decide to put the wine in stainless steel, oak chips are added! Malolatic Fermentation. This process occurs when lactic acid bacteria mixes with malic acids and produces lactic acids and carbon dioxide. Malolatic fermentation can improve the taste of wine that has large amounts of malic acids. Malic acids creates an unpleasant, harsh, and bitter taste sensation. All red wines go through malolatic fermentation to lessen the amount of acid in the wine, and to remove the possibility that malic acids may be in the bottle. On the other hand, many white wines do not go through fermentation, because they don’t have a lot of acid. Laboratory Tests. Whether wine is stored in vessels or barrels, tests are done regularly. These tests are done to test sugar level, alcohol level, pH level, and many other factors. Theses tests are performed throughout the making of the wine, from the first step through the last! Blending and Fining Different wines can sometimes be mixed together to achieve the desired taste. This process is as simple as the tests the wine have, every now and then. Fining is removing the chemicals and particles that make the wine cloudy. Gelatin has actually been used in many wines for centuries, as a traditional method for wine fining! Usually, no gelatin actually remains in the wine, as it mixes with other chemicals. Also many fining agents will use milk, eggs, bone char, bulls blood, an animals bladder, honey, and a skim milk powder. Preservatives The most common preservative in winemaking is sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide has one main reason, and that is that its an anti oxidant. If sulfur dioxide is added before alcoholic fermentation, it may damage the effects of oxygen, and the wine will go bad! Without the use of sulfur dioxide, wines will suffer bacterial spoilage. Some winemakers practice natural winemaking where no preservatives are added. The wine is then put in a freezer with the temperature being 5 C. Filtration Filtration in winemaking is used to accomplish two objectives: clarification and stabilization. In clarification, large particles that effect the visual appearance of the wine are removed. In stabilization, organisms that effect the stability are removed, therefore killing all possibilities of the wine going bad. The wine is then put in the refrigerator at a low temperature. Bottling. Finally, the last step in winemaking! A final does of sulfite is added to help preserve the wine and to prevent unwanted fermentation going on in the bottle. Once the wine bottles are filled,, they are traditionally sealed with a cork. The final step is adding a capsule! The wine is now ready to be shipped off, and then sold to buyers that will greatly enjoy the taste! Many people actually don’t know how much work is put into making the wine! That’s why its so expensive, nowadays! I hoped I helped you to understand the process of†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. WINEMAKING!!!!!

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Essay --

1.0 Analysis on Ford Motor Company Financial Condition Based on question 1, the table in appendix 1 indicates the financial statement of Ford Motor Company from the year 2008 to 2012. According to the table, the balance sheet has shown that, there were a positive figure in Ford’s operating income from the year 2012 to 2012. Meanwhile, there were slight decrement in the balance sheet from the year 2008 to 2009, whereby has designates negative value in the operating income. A convergence in factors produced in December 2007 to June 2009, was Great Recession due to bad bank loans, improper credit ratings, lax regulatory policies and misguided government incentives that encouraged reckless borrowing and lending (Lutterell et al., 2011). Besides that, this crisis also had drastic effects towards oil price because in 2008, the oil price has increases up to 18 % from 13% per year because of the crunch. It has resulted loss of trust towards U.S government and its capitalist economic system. According to Fraser Institute Index of Economic freedom has indicated that, from the second rank of global ranking, U.S has drop to 18th in 2012 (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 2012) The increasing of economic challenges and crunch in 2008 has impacted badly on the annual reports of companies, in both terms of cash flow and operating losses. In the earlier year it is predictable weak, up to 15% drop in annual operational cash flows. Following the declines in automobile sales throughout 2008 has affected the other car maker in U.S, such as, General Motors (GM) and Ford Motor Company. In this case, the automobiles industry has requested for emergency loans in order to encounter upcoming cash shortages (Brent and Glass, 2009). Finally, with the resolv... ...7 compare to Ford which is 1.01 and GM 0.985 and as the average of the year the quick ratio is in positive form which is 0.981. In the past 5 years the total average of quick ratio which is been stated in the financial statement for Toyota is 0.9726 and Ford is 0.86 where else, GM has a low average 0.821 compare to Ford and Toyota. Finally, Ford and GM managed to step away from the low quick ratio issues and went up steadily due to their dedication in maintaining their current liabilities and inventories which Toyota failed to balance which resulted the decreased growth in the year 2012. To be concluded that Ford is the leading force in the automotive industry because of the expert staff, quality products and services. This company is the perfect investment opportunity; paying close attention to the risks and regulations and protecting their investors’ interests.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Reading Music Essay

Of all the stuffs that people usually deal with ease, reading sheet music is just one of the downfall points. They think that the course is not as easy as ABC. Technically, reading sheet music effectively may certainly be impossible if one wants to learn fast. The course usually takes a lot of time and patience before everything is grasped and practiced. This is probably the reason a lot of music enthusiasts out there seldom know how to read sheet music. Undeniably, playing music is not impossible even if the person is unable to read sheet music. The thought is just similar to those who are able to speak, yet unable to write. But learning how to read sheet music will allow someone to explore and discover various music theories that are strange to others who just know the basics of music. On top of that, once techniques in reading sheet music are deeply understood, one is no longer limited to play songs that he/she encountered. The course will lead someone to play all types of music, even the foreign ones. Learning to read sheet music is a little complicated (Lux, n. d. ). Thus, we should take it one step at a time. The following are the ways to read sheet music effective and efficiently. The first lesson in reading sheet music is the study of the staff (Evans, n. d. ). It has five lines and four spaces wherein each corresponds to a single note. The space seen either above or below a certain line represents a note either below or above the scale. The next step a neophyte must learn is to identify the clef and its respective form (Evans, n. d. ). A clef is the first music symbol written over a staff. The clef plays a role that helps indentify which line or space in the staff represents a certain note. A chef is categorized into treble and bass clef. Each has distinctive characteristics. The former is known as a G-clef, a symbol that is used in writing music for melodic voices like soprano, alto, tenor, and the like. The latter, on the other hand, is known as F-clef, a symbol that is used for low-pitched instruments like bass, bassoons, and among others. Determining the key signature is the subsequent step in reading sheet music (Evands, n. d. ). The term, key signature, refers to a group of symbols that are placed directly to the right portion of the clef before a note is written. Such symbol could be a flat or a sharp. If the sheet music does not contain so many symbols, its key signature is considered â€Å"natural† which means it is neither sharp nor flat. Aside from the determination of key signature, it is important to observe the time signature. Such is usually located in the right portion of a key signature. It consists of two numbers that appear similarly to a fraction. These are top number and button numbers. When the preceding steps are followed well, the next step is to play the notes in relation to its time signature. Since, you are already aware of the lines or spaces that correspond to a note, you may now read the piece from left to right. It has to be remembered though that the symbols will either stand for notes or rests. The latter means silence. In other words, rests do not assign any pitch for they are placed in always the same position over staff. Types of notes and rests are whole rest, whole note, half rest, half note, quarter rest, quarter note, and a lot more. It is important to know and understand each type. The last important step in learning how to read sheet music is to listen how notes are played together vis-a-vis the sheet music. There may be some loopholes that will come out while playing, but a constant practice makes it perfect. Learning how to read sheet music is not simply memorizing it. One must understand its basic concepts well enough, see the patterns and apply them. Banking the concepts is something that everyone must do. Without it, real music will not come out. Work Cited Evans, Ashtyn. â€Å"How to Read Sheet Music. † n. d. How To Do Things. 12 April 2009 < http://www. howtodothings. com/hobbies/a2683-how-to-read-sheet-music. html> Lux, Kevin. â€Å"Introduction to Reading Music. n. d. DataDragon Information Services. 12 April 2009 < http://datadragon. com/education/reading/>

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Metamorphosis- Creative Writing Essay - 787 Words

He glanced out of the window, watching the sky turning from a deep blue shade to a clear, blue, breezy morning. ‘A good day.’ He made a mental note to himself. The sun baked through the curtains, sharpening his enormous shadow. He thought of that fussy factory owner and sighed. ‘ What am I going to say? Hello, Mr. Martin. I’m afraid I can’t meet you in the hotel this afternoon. Guess what! I have had a terrible twist of fate and have turned into a big, juicy vermin! And then he would reply: How nice! Mr. Samsa, have you got tentacles growing from your baldhead as well? That is so insane!’ Gregor couldn’t help chuckling to himself at this thought, interrupted by the creaking noise from the landing†¦show more content†¦He struggled to find comfort for his back, and couldn’t help wincing. He heaved a sigh of agony and placed his head on the pillow, lied on his back, rather uncomfortably, closed his beady eyes and speechlessl y waited for that moment to arrive. Heavy footsteps ware approaching. Their shoes clap rhythmically on the floor. He knew he must face it. ‘Greg!’ It’s time for breakfast! Annie is staying for dinner tonight!’ He would have responded but it seemed that he had lost the ability to speak. His heart raced very badly. His mother knocked again. ‘Greg?’ Gregor looked at the doorknob, secretly wishing that it would never be turned. Now he heard conversation and the next moment the door flung open, revealing the affectionate couple, standing consciously in the hallway, half peering into the messy bedroom. He bolted upright. Through his dark eyes Gregor saw the couple petrified and wordless. They seemed too stun to stare and they stood in disbelief. His dad’s eyes shot from the vacant bed to the giant vermin and sneered at him. After a long moment his mum cried softly.’ Do you hear me Greg?’ There was no sound except the heavy heartbeat of the both of them. Greg didn’t realise how this happened but the next instant his tentacles was pulled and his whole body lifted up and swung. He landed onShow MoreRelatedThe Existential Isolation And Biopsychological Change1519 Words   |  7 PagesAn Analysis of the Existential Isolation and Biopsychological Change in The Metamorphosis and â€Å"Letter to my Father† by Franz Kafka and Unwelcome Visitors† by Tessa Farmer This literary and art analysis will define the correlation between the writings of Kafka and the installation art of Tessa Farmer’s in relation to the themes of existential isolation and biopsychological change. Gregor’s anxiety in The Metamorphosis is partially due to the alienation of society, which cases an existential periodRead MoreThe Relationship Between Gregor and Samsa Essay1670 Words   |  7 Pagespioneers who have explored the meaning and purpose of existence, Franz Kafka is one to be noted and studied. 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